Electricity

Electricity is a form of energy which is generated by flow of charges (ex.- positive charge, negative charge) which are present in the material (solid & liquid). Flow of charge is possible in conducting material through electrostatic force, in the liquid through chemical reaction (ex.- battery), in semiconducting material through solar energy.

Let’s understand the charges in a material. As we know that a material is made up of small – small atoms, each atom consists of three particles- proton, electron & neutron. Protons are positively charged particles, electrons are negatively charged particle & neutron carries no charge so it’s a neutral particle. These positive & negative charges are equal in numbers & attract to each other hence a balanced condition is formed in the atom.

An atom has a center point called nucleolus where protons are present at the center along with neutrons & electrons are placed in orbits surrounding the nucleus. Some orbits are smaller which are very close to center & other orbits are at a regular distance from the center.The electron which is revolving close to nucleus is strongly bonded with the protons & the outer most is weakly bonded with the protons. The attraction force between protons & electrons depends on the distance between them. These attraction & repulsion forces are called electrostatic forces. Each material has fixed number of electrons in the orbit & the electrons in the outmost orbit are called valence electrons which can move when a negative external force is applied to it.

These atoms are attached with each other as outer most electrons repulse to other electron of other atom which is further pushed towards protons. Like this, these atoms are joined together, form molecules & then substance & becomes a material.

Some examples of charge flow

  1. Comb gets charged when combing our dry hair. During combing process, electrons (loosely connected with hair) move from hair &attach with comb, now comb becomes negative charged object& hair positively charged. That is why our hair stands up when we bring comb close to hair.
  2. When we bring small piece of paper close to charged comb, paper is attracted towards comb because paper is not charged & a charged particles (like comb) may attract or repulse a without charge material according to other material’s neutral property. Hence in case of paper & comb, paper is attracted towards negatively charged comb.
  3. Such type of charge flow is called static electricity.

HOW DOES CHARGEFLOW IN A MATERIAL

As we have seen that outer most electron or valence electron can be separated from the atom if a suitable electrostatic force is applied to the atom. Now the separated electron is a free electron.

Let us consider a case of wire which is made up of a conducting material. Now this wire is filled with countless atoms in it. When an electrostatic force is applied in the wire, valence electron separates from the atom & floats in the space between the atoms, this free –ve charged electron push another electron of outer orbit of next atom & takes its position, now this free electron floats in the space & it does same & this process repeats. So, the chain of flow of electrons in the wire is called electric current.

The flow of electrons depends on the type of material which requires less force to separate valence electron. There is some material known as conducting material which needs less force to separate valence electrons such as Cupper, Aluminum etc.  On the other hand there is some material which needs high force to separate free electron from atoms such material is called insulators like rubber, plastic etc.The same could be understood with the diagram given below.

WHAT IS ELECTROSTATIC FORCE

 

Electrostatic force whichis also kwon as Coulomb force, is the attraction or repulsion of particles or objects because of their electric charge.

Two like electric charges, both either positive or negative repel each other in a center line between their centers. Two unlike charges, one positive & one negative attract each other along a straight line joining their centers.

When we talk of electricity, we come across few terms like Voltage, Current, Resistance, frequency etc , which have been explained in next lessons.

Electricity is a form of energy which is generated by flow of charges (ex.- positive charge, negative charge) which are present in the material (solid & liquid). Flow of charge is possible in conducting material through electrostatic force, in the liquid through chemical reaction (ex.- battery), in semiconducting material through solar energy.

Let’s understand the charges in a material. As we know that a material is made up of small – small atoms, each atom consists of three particles- proton, electron & neutron. Protons are positively charged particles, electrons are negatively charged particle & neutron carries no charge so it’s a neutral particle. These positive & negative charges are equal in numbers & attract to each other hence a balanced condition is formed in the atom.

An atom has a center point called nucleolus where protons are present at the center along with neutrons & electrons are placed in orbits surrounding the nucleus. Some orbits are smaller which are very close to center & other orbits are at a regular distance from the center.The electron which is revolving close to nucleus is strongly bonded with the protons & the outer most is weakly bonded with the protons. The attraction force between protons & electrons depends on the distance between them. These attraction & repulsion forces are called electrostatic forces. Each material has fixed number of electrons in the orbit & the electrons in the outmost orbit are called valence electrons which can move when a negative external force is applied to it.

These atoms are attached with each other as outer most electrons repulse to other electron of other atom which is further pushed towards protons. Like this, these atoms are joined together, form molecules & then substance & becomes a material.

Some examples of charge flow

  1. Comb gets charged when combing our dry hair. During combing process, electrons (loosely connected with hair) move from hair &attach with comb, now comb becomes negative charged object& hair positively charged. That is why our hair stands up when we bring comb close to hair.
  2. When we bring small piece of paper close to charged comb, paper is attracted towards comb because paper is not charged & a charged particles (like comb) may attract or repulse a without charge material according to other material’s neutral property. Hence in case of paper & comb, paper is attracted towards negatively charged comb.
  3. Such type of charge flow is called static electricity.

 

HOW DOES CHARGEFLOW IN A MATERIAL

As we have seen that outer most electron or valence electron can be separated from the atom if a suitable electrostatic force is applied to the atom. Now the separated electron is a free electron.

Let us consider a case of wire which is made up of a conducting material. Now this wire is filled with countless atoms in it. When an electrostatic force is applied in the wire, valence electron separates from the atom & floats in the space between the atoms, this free –ve charged electron push another electron of outer orbit of next atom & takes its position, now this free electron floats in the space & it does same & this process repeats. So, the chain of flow of electrons in the wire is called electric current.

The flow of electrons depends on the type of material which requires less force to separate valence electron. There is some material known as conducting material which needs less force to separate valence electrons such as Cupper, Aluminum etc.  On the other hand there is some material which needs high force to separate free electron from atoms such material is called insulators like rubber, plastic etc.The same could be understood with the diagram given below.

WHAT IS ELECTROSTATIC FORCE

 Electrostatic force whichis also kwon as Coulomb force, is the attraction or repulsion of particles or objects because of their electric charge.

Two like electric charges, both either positive or negative repel each other in a center line between their centers. Two unlike charges, one positive & one negative attract each other along a straight line joining their centers.

When we talk of electricity, we come across few terms like Voltage, Current, Resistance, frequency etc , which have been explained in next lessons.