Definition – Electrical Load is a device or equipment which works/operates on electrical power. Generally there are three types of load –
- Resistive load,
- Inductive load, &
- Capacitive load.
- Resistive Load – When voltage is applied to a resistive load, current flows in the circuit & follows the same cycle with respect to time as voltage. In other words, there is no gap between voltage & current with respect to time.
Example–Incandescent Lamps & Heaters.
- Inductive Load – When voltage is applied to an inductive load, it draws a large amount of current (initially for few cycles/seconds) and then it settles down to the full load current. In this case, current reaches its peak after the voltage. Hence in this case, there is a gap between voltage & current with respect to time & this gap is called power factor. All inductive loadswork on electromagnetic field system which is responsible of lagging power factor.
Examples – Induction motors, Transformers, choke, Induction Heaters, electromechanical relays etc
- Capacitive Load – A capacitive load is a load in which current wave reaches its peak before the voltage & that is responsible for leading power factor.
Example – synchronous motors and capacitors.
(Note – The effect of type of load is responsible for power factor in electrical system. This effect can be understood with the help of diagrams which is given below.)